Indonesia

The Republic of Indonesia (Indonesia), with its capital in Jakarta, shares borders with Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, and Timor Leste. The total area of Indonesia reaches 1,904,569 square kilometers with a total population estimated at 237.6 million people (2010 est.). The ethnic majority are Javanese, making up 45% of the population.

There are more than 700 languages and dialects spoken in Indonesia. Bahasa Indonesia is the national and official language in Indonesia. English is the most prevalent foreign language, followed by Dutch and French. Indonesia formally recognizes six religions, namely Islam, Catholicism, Protestantism, Confucianism, Hinduism and Buddhism. Islam is the predominant religion in Indonesia, with 85% of the population identifying with it. The remaining population practices Protestantism (8.9%), Roman Catholicism (3%), Hinduism (1.8%), Buddhism (0.8%), and other (0.3%).  

Indonesia is a democratic, multi-party, presidential republic, with power divided between executive, legislative, and judicial branches. Article 4(1) of the 1945 Constitution (Fourth Amendment) affirms that the President of the Republic of Indonesia holds “the power of the government”. The legislative branch includes the People’s Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR), the House of Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat or DPR), and the Regional Representatives Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah or DPD).

Indonesia joined the United Nations (UN) on 28 September 1950, five years after its independence from Dutch colonization. Indonesia withdrew from the UN in 1965, but later rejoined in 1966.

Indonesia is also a member of various international organizations, including the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC); Asia-Europe Foundation (ASEF); Developing Eight (D-8); Group of 77 and China (G-77 and China); Group of Fifteen (G-15); Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC); International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol); International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD); International Finance Corporation (IFC); International Monetary Fund (IMF); Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU); International Telecommunication Union (ITU); Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW); World Food Programme (WFP); World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO); and World Trade Organization (WTO).